Speech and language development correlates with longitudinal research based milestones.
Here is a listing of general milestones. Children should attain milestones within a two to four month range around the milestone. Failure to meet milestones may be indicative of a delay or a disorder.
||Hearing and Understanding
|Birth – 3 Months
- Startles to loud sounds
- Quiets or smiles when spoken to
- Seems to recognize your voice and quiets if crying
- Increases or decreases sucking behavior in response to sound
- Makes pleasure sounds (cooing, gooing)
- Cries differently for different needs
- Smiles when sees you
|4 – 6 Months
- Moves eyes in direction of sounds
- Responds to changes in tone of your voice
- Notices toys that make sounds
- Pays attention to music
- Babbling sounds more speech-like with many different sounds, including p, b and m
- Vocalizes excitement and displeasure
- Makes gurgling sounds when left alone and when playing with you
|7 – 12 Months
- Enjoys games like peekaboo and pat-a-cake
- Turns and looks in direction of sounds
- Listens when spoken to
- Recognizes words for common items like “cup”, “shoe,” or “juice”
- Begins to respond to requests (e.g. “Come here” or “Want more?”)
- Babbling has both long and short groups of sounds such as “tata upup bibibibi”
- Uses speech or noncrying sounds to get and keep attention
- Imitates different speech sounds
- Has one or two words (bye-bye, dada, mama). although they may not be clear
|1 – 2 Years
- Points to a few body parts when asked.
- Follows simple commands and understands simple questions (“Roll the ball,” “Kiss the baby,” “Where’s your shoe?”).
- Listens to simple stories, songs, and rhymes.
- Points to pictures in a book when named.
- Says more words every month.
- Uses some one- or two- word questions (“Where kitty?” “Go bye-bye?” “What’s that?”).
- Puts two words together (“more cookie,” “no juice,” “mommy book”).
- Uses many different consonant sounds at the beginning of words.
|2 – 3 Years
- Understands differences in meaning (“go-stop,” “in-on,” “big-little,” “up-down”).
- Follows two requests (“Get the book and put it on the table”).
- Has a word for almost everything.
- Uses two- or three- word “sentences” to talk about and ask for things.
- Speech is understood by familiar listeners most of the time.
- Often asks for or directs attention to objects by naming them.
|3 – 4 Years
- Hears you when you call from another room.
- Hears television or radio at the same loudness level as other family members.
- Understands simple “wh” (who, what,where,why) questions.
- Talks about activities at school or at friends’ homes.
- Speaks clearly enough that people outside of the family usually understand his or her speech.
- Uses a lot of sentences that have four or more words.
- Usually talks easily without repeating syllables or words.